Microplastic pollution: Sources, fate, impacts and research gaps

Muhammad Ashir Hameed, Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi, Fazila Younas, Waqas Mohy Ud Din, Abdul Qadir, Muhammad Mahroz Hussain, Sheza Ayaz Khilji
Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan,
Department of Botany DSNT, University of Education, Lahore
Abstract: The occurrence of microplastics into the ecosystem has become and eminent threat for the environment as well as gets extensive attention in recent times. Microplastic existence has severely aff ected lakes, rivers, oceans, coastal zones, and even polar zones biome. Microplastics (primary microplastics) mostly come from used products and by shattering of larger fragments. Through runoff , the microplas tic enters into either aquatic or terrestrial environment where it can cause the devastating impacts not only to that ecosystem but also to the humans. Several studies professed that microplastics have a signifi cant impact on marine and terrestrial communities. Microplastic particles are widespread in India, Asia, Southeast Asia, North America, Africa, South Africa, and Europe. The microplastic source and global distribution in the ecosystem, their eff ects on marine organisms, particularly in the food chain are illustrated in this review. Finding the principal sources of microplastic into the environment and raising the awareness among communities can signifi cantly reduce the extent of microplastics pollution in the environment. This review article is an eff ort to create understanding about the microplastics pollution, sources and eff ects on environment. All the possible environmental friendly remediation strategies like bioremediation are also discussed in this article.
Keywords: Aquatic Biodiversity Impacts, Microplastic occurrence and distribution, Environment deterioration.
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