Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated With Heavy Metals Using the Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

Merima Toromanović, Vildana Jogić, Jasmina Ibrahimpašić, Aida Džaferović, Samira Dedić, Halid Makić

Univesity of Bihać, Biotechnical faculty, Bihać, Bosna i Hercegovina;;;;;
ABSTRACT: Phytoremediation has proven to be a suitable method for removing heavy metals from the soil with the help of plants. To examine the phytoremediation potential, the experimental study monitored the infl uence of high and low concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Zn) on Helianthus annuus L., as well as their accumulation in seeds, roots, stems and leaves. The experiment was carried out during one growing season in outdoor conditions, in pots with a volume of 5L in which Helianthus annuus L. was planted, and the soil was contaminated with these heavy metals in concentrations below and above the maximum allowable concentration prescribed by the Rulebook on Determining Permissible Quantities of Harmful and Dangerous Substances in Soil and Methods of Their Testing. After growth and development of the plant, the experimental research examined the accumulation potential of the plant, the growth of the plant itself and its ability to survive depending on diff erent concentrations of heavy metals. By processing the obtained results, statistically signifi cant diff erences of heavy metals were determined in individual parts of the plants, depending on the applied concentration. The highest concentration of Zn was recorded in the leaves of the plant in the amount of 18.21 mg/kg, and the lowest concentration in the stem, 3.92 mg/kg. The measured values of heavy metals Cd and Pb diff er from the above because the lowest concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded in the seed, and were 12.02 mg/kg for Pb and 9.20 mg/kg for Cd, which is a statistically signifi cantly lower determined value relative to other parts of the plant.
Keywords: phytoremediation, Helianthus annuus L., heavy metals.
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